HTML Introduction

Tim Berners-Lee, scientist at CERN invented the World Wide Web in 1989. HTML was invented by him in 1990. He created a system for CERN researchers to use and share documents.

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1Short HTML Introduction

  • Full form of HTML is Hyper Text Markup Language.
  • It informs the browser about the type of content and its structure.
  • Browsers read HTML to understand and render the web page.
  • HTML element starts with an opening tag and ends with a closing tag.
  • Browsers never display HTML tags on the screen.

2HTML and XHTML

HTML is parsed easily by the browsers, neglecting minor errors. On the other hand, XHTML is a lot strict than HTML, even a small omission can give an error. XHTML is based on XML and thus requires the code to be well-formed.

3So, what is XML?

XML stands for Extensible Markup Language. The programmer can write his own custom tags. (Remember HTML has predefined tags, but XML doesn’t). XML is self-descriptive. XML is not a substitute for HTML. It just stores the content in a way that can be understood by the human as well as the machine.

4HTML Tags

  • HTML tags normally come in pairs like  <p> This is a paragraph </p>  for marking a paragraph.
  • The first tag in a pair is the opening tag, the second tag is the closing tag.
  • The closing tag is written like the opening tag, but with a forward slash inserted before the tag name.
  • Some HTML tags are alone and do not require the closing tag (called empty tags, discussed later).

5The !DOCTYPE Declaration

  • The  <!DOCTYPE>  is used to inform the browser about the content type so that the browser can display the file correctly.
  • It should always be written on the very first line of the document before any other tag.
  • It is not case sensitive but should always include exclamation before it.
  • If you want to tell the browser that your document type is HTML then write it as  <!DOCTYPE html>

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